Sunday, June 15, 2008

JavaScript Cross Window Communication via Cookies

Using JavaScript we can communicate between browser windows given that we have a reference to each window. When a new window is created the the JavaScript method it returns a reference to the new window. The child window, also has a reference to the parent window that created it via the window.opener window object. These references allow the two windows to communicate with and manipulate each other.

There are times however, when we need to communicate with an open window for which there is no window object reference. A typical example of this is when a popup window is created, then the parent window is reloaded. When reloading the parent, all JavaScript objects are "trashed", along with the reference to the open popup window. Here is where cookies come into play - they are not trashed.

The problem with cookies is that it only saves strings, so you can't write a reference to a window object directly to a cookie, since serializing the reference is not possible. However, since both the child window and the parent window are able to read and write cookies, then they have a medium for which they can communicate. Even if the medium only allows strings.

To demonstrate how communicating between windows with cookies would work, lets assume we want to open a window, and then close it a few seconds later.

var win ='child.html');
setTimeout(function() { win.close(); }, 5000);
The code will open a child window, and close it after 5 seconds using the reference to the child window and the method close(). However if we didn't have a reference for some reason, we would not be able to invoke the close method. So lets see how it could be done with cookies:'child.html');
setTimeout(function() { setCookie('child', 'close'); }, 5000);
Here we open a window but do not save a reference. Then after 5 seconds we write 'close', to the cookie named 'child' (using the pseudo setCookie() function). This does not do anything by itself, but if the child window was expecting the cookie, it could close itself when it read 'close'. Lets assume the following JS is in child.html.
// child.html
setInterval(function() { getCookie('child') == 'close' ? this.close() : ''; }, 500);
This would check the cookie every half a seconds and close the window if the cookie read 'close'.

Using this method we can send any commands to any open windows and have them execute it without having a reference to that window.


Anonymous said...

Have you found a way to ensure the communication is not send back and forth to the server?

bucabay said...

Communication is not sent back to the server. JavaScript cookies are not sent to the server until the page reloads.
If need be you could clear the cookies when the page reloads or closes using the window's onunload event.

piter said...

I have been researching this problem and I have implemented proper solution for it.